##### Date

2013

##### Dewey

Probabilités et mathématiques appliquées

##### Sujet

Iterated batch importance sampling; Particle Markov chain Monte Carlo; Sequential Monte Carlo; State-space models; Particle ltering

##### JEL code

C15

##### Journal issue

Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B, Statistical Methodology

##### Volume

75

##### Number

3

##### Publication date

2013

##### Article pages

397-426

##### Publisher

Wiley
##### Author

Chopin, Nicolas

Jacob, Pierre E.

Papaspiliopoulos, Omiros

##### Type

Article accepté pour publication ou publié

##### Abstract (EN)

We consider the generic problem of performing sequential Bayesian inference in a state-space model with observation process y, state process x and fixed parameter theta. An idealized approach would be to apply the iterated batch importance sampling (IBIS) algorithm of Chopin (2002). This is a sequential Monte Carlo algorithm in the theta-dimension, that samples values of theta, reweights iteratively these values using the likelihood increments p(y_t|y_1:t-1, theta), and rejuvenates the theta-particles through a resampling step and a MCMC update step. In state-space models these likelihood increments are intractable in most cases, but they may be unbiasedly estimated by a particle filter in the x-dimension, for any fixed theta. This motivates the SMC^2 algorithm proposed in this article: a sequential Monte Carlo algorithm, defined in the theta-dimension, which propagates and resamples many particle filters in the x-dimension. The filters in the x-dimension are an example of the random weight particle filter as in Fearnhead et al. (2010). On the other hand, the particle Markov chain Monte Carlo (PMCMC) framework developed in Andrieu et al. (2010) allows us to design appropriate MCMC rejuvenation steps. Thus, the theta-particles target the correct posterior distribution at each iteration t, despite the intractability of the likelihood increments. We explore the applicability of our algorithm in both sequential and non-sequential applications and consider various degrees of freedom, as for example increasing dynamically the number of x-particles. We contrast our approach to various competing methods, both conceptually and empirically through a detailed simulation study, included here and in a supplement, and based on particularly challenging examples.