##### Author

Aslani, Shahriar

66 Département de Mathématiques et Applications - ENS Paris [DMA]

Bernard, Patrick

60 CEntre de REcherches en MAthématiques de la DEcision [CEREMADE]

##### Type

Document de travail / Working paper

##### Item number of pages

9

##### Abstract (EN)

In the study of Hamiltonian systems on cotangent bundles, it is natural to perturb Hamiltoni-ans by adding potentials (functions depending only on the base point). This led to the definition of Mañé genericity: a property is generic if, given a Hamiltonian H, the set of potentials u such that H + u satisfies the property is generic. This notion is mostly used in the context of Hamiltonians which are convex in p, in the sense that ∂ 2 pp H is positive definite at each points. We will also restrict our study to this situation. There is a close relation between perturbations of Hamiltonians by a small additive potential and perturbations by a positive factor close to one. Indeed, the Hamiltonians H + u and H/(1 − u) have the same level one energy surface, hence their dynamics on this energy surface are reparametrisation of each other, this is the Maupertuis principle. This remark is particularly relevant when H is homogeneous in the fibers (which corresponds to Finsler metrics) or even fiberwise quadratic (which corresponds to Riemannian metrics). In these cases, perturbations by potentials of the Hamiltonian correspond, up to parametrisation, to conformal perturbations of the metric. One of the widely studied aspects is to understand to what extent the return map associated to a periodic orbit can be perturbed by adding a small potential. This kind of question depend strongly on the context in which they are posed. Some of the most studied contexts are, in increasing order of difficulty, perturbations of general vector fields, perturbations of Hamiltonian systems inside the class of Hamiltonian systems, perturbations of Riemannian metrics inside the class of Riemannian metrics, Mañé perturbations of convex Hamiltonians. It is for example well-known that each vector field can be perturbed to a vector field with only hyperbolic periodic orbits, this is part of the Kupka-Smale theorem, see [5, 13]. There is no such result in the context of Hamiltonian vector fields, but it remains true that each Hamiltonian can be perturbed to a Hamiltonian with only non-degenerate periodic orbits (including the iterated ones), see [11, 12]. The same result is true in the context of Riemannian metrics: every Riemannian metric can be perturbed to a Riemannian metric with only non-degenerate closed geodesics, this is the bumpy metric theorem, see [4, 2, 1]. The question was investigated only much more recently in the context of Mañé perturbations of convex Hamiltonians, see [9, 10]. It is proved in [10] that the same result holds : If H is a convex Hamiltonian and a is a regular value of H, then there exist arbitrarily small potentials u such that all periodic orbits (including iterated ones) of H + u at energy a are non-degenerate. The proof given in [10] is actually rather similar to the ones given in papers on the perturbations of Riemannian metrics. In all these proofs, it is very useful to work.